Tuesday, December 2, 2014

India- Palk dialogue- How soon is the question?


India- Palk dialogue- How soon is the question?
Syed Ali Mujtaba

Prime Minister Narandra Modi reading newspaper while Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif going to the podium to deliver his Saarc speech in Kathmandu tells million words.  It was in Dulikhel retreat, the reluctant Indian Prime Minster offered the handshake to his Pakistani counterpart that saved the summit; courtesy Nepalese hosts who did not wanted to sour the broth.

PM Modi was giving the impression that there may be no Indo-Pak dialogue as long as he is in power. His opinion remains entangled in the cobweb of terrorism and Kashmir issue.

He is nursing the dream that Pakistan will forfeit its claim on Kashmir and relinquish terrorism once and forever. Every Indian says Insha-Allah to it and hopes and prays that such dream may come true.

However there are many disagreeing souls in the country who feel that stonewalling Pakistan is the biggest blunder that Mr Modi is making. In the process he may be inviting another HUDHUD whose consequences may be hard to control.

It is therefore in the interest of the country to engage Pakistan as it is the only way forward. And for this Indo- Pak dialogue has to happen sooner than later.

Everything is not lost as far India –Pak dialogue is concerned. Overtly, there may be posturing by the Prime Minister, but covertly Modi has given his consent to keep alive the track -2 diplomacy.

An India-Pak delegation was recently allowed to have an informal meeting in New Delhi. Indian side was represented by Mani Shanker Iyer and Salman khurshid and Pakistani side was led by its former foreign minister. There were 15 members on each side. This kindles hope of the revival of Indo- Pak talks.

The other indication is Modi has not ordered the discontinuation of the Aghaz- e – Dosti initiative by Delhi based NGO Bhartiyan Mission. They young Turks continue to silently do their job, connecting youngsters from India and Pakistan.

Recently, they had video conferencing and the students from both sides interacted freely with each other.
The third indication is; Modi has not ordered to take off from the air, the TV Channel Zindagi that brings Pakistani TV dramas to the Indian homes. The channel is a big draw in India and the Indian Ad content during the serial suggests its popularity among Indian viewers.

These factors suggest that even before the so called international community nudges Modi, to shun his posturing, it is likely the dialogue may resume soon. How soon is the question, the answer is wait and watch.

Saturday, November 22, 2014

Memoirs of Mysore and Srirangapatanam

Memoirs of Mysore and Srirangapatanam
Syed Ali Mujtaba

Here is my travelogue of the Mysore visit on 19th November 2014. This is my fourth visit to Mysore and the historical places around it but it was most memorable of them all because it was with Hena, my wife and Ismail, my son.
My first stop was at Karnataka State Open University where I had official work. The new building that has opened recently was the place where I spent some time in meetings and negotiations.

Then we headed to Srirangapattam and went to the tomb of Hyder Ali, his wife and Tipu Sultan . It has a magnificent Gumbaz or dome and that has a great art work. The place has a mosque where 5 times prayers are held daily.  It has lots of graves of the family members of Tipu sultan.
After the fall of Srirangapattam fort, members of the Tipu family were killed and brought here and buried in the courtyard outside the tomb and beyond.

Hyder Ali who was commander-in-chief to Krishnaraja Wodeyar wrested power from him 1761 and became independent ruler. After his death in 1784, his son Tipu ruled Mysore till 1799. After the fall of Tipu, Wodeyars, returned power and ruled from Mysore under British protection. Mirza Ismail Beg was the famous Diwan, of the Wodeyars and credited to have built the dam over river Kaveri and famous Brindaban garden by its side.      

The next stop was Daria –Daulat palace or the summer palace of Tipu Sultan. Tippu Sultan built this palace in 1784. The palace is built in the Indo-Sarcenic style in mostly made of teakwood. The most stunning feature of the palace is that all the space available on the walls, pillars, canopies and arches have colorful frescoes in the style of Mysore paintings.

The building is a nice structure with ornate and intricate work.  It’s a museum now and has various artifacts at display. It has a collection of Tippu memorabilia, European paintings and Persian manuscripts.  There are paintings on the wall that depicts the procession scene.

Then we headed to the Srirangapatanam fort, a massive place, which is now taken over by the local people who have built their houses and living there. The exterior has the entry gate to the fort, and some of its parapet is still intact reminding of the structure that may have stood 200 years ago. Now it’s a thriving locality with a sizable population.

The only remaining memory of Tipu Sultan is the Jama Masjid inside the fort of Srirangapattam fort. It has more south East Asian features then the mosques of north India. Instead of four minarets, it has two minarets starting from the ground level and going up high. The ground floor of the mosque has Madarsa and the first floor has the prayer chamber with the usual dome. It’s a magnificent structure that survives the day.  


Inside the fort there is the exact spot where Tipu Sultan’s body was found dead. He was killed during the battle, dismounting from the horse and indulging in sword fight.

The historic Ranganathaswamy Temple inside the fort is other great structure that survives to this date. It’s built of Nagra style and resembles many south Indian temples. There was a beeline of local tourist visiting the temple.

While inside the fort of Srirangapatanam, a stream of thought flew into my funnel. My first brush with Srirangapatnam was reading the history lesson in the school. Then it was reading modern Indian history at Irfan Habib’s class in AMU, Aligarh. Gidwani book on Tipu Sultan gives a graphic description of the siege of the fort of Srirangapatnam the British that took months to finally breach it and that too by the internal connivance of the insiders.

During my visit to London museum, I saw a separate gallery on Tipu Sultan, which has his horse stirrup, cloths, sword and the tiger, his symbol. The museum has the famous painting "Storming of Srirangapattanam" an oil painting by Sir Robert Ker Porter made in 1800. This historical painting depicts the final fall of Srirangapatana on 4 May 1799. Tippu's men are seen giving stiff resistance to the British army and many British officers are clearly visible in the painting.  The military might of the British that rested on Indian foot soldiers were on full display in the canvas. There were other paintings that depicts the final moments of Tipu sultan. It is in this fort that Tippu died fighting the British.

I was trying to compare that huge canvas of Srirngapatnam fort with the latest structure on the ground right. There are only remains of it left today. The British looted and destroyed all the structures inside the fort. Tippu's Palace, the Lal Mahal lies in ruins and there is no trace of it.    

My next halt was Sailm Ali Bird observatory. It is a nice place and the birds are placed in its natural habitat. We had a boat ride and saw the birds sitting on trees and flying around. There were crocodiles in the lake but were at a distance and did not disturbed anyone.  It’s a very scenic environment and the company of birds made it chipper.

We returned back to Mysore city and headed to the historic Chamundi hill shrine that is over 3000 feet from ground. Mysore city view from the Chamundi hill was amazing. One can see the entire Mysore city from the hill top. The famous Dassarah procession that starts from Mysore palace every year concludes in this hill shrine. I found a plaque depicting Muslim names that has contributed to the building of some structure in the
shrine complex. This was something amusing.    

We then visited St. Philomena's church, a Catholic church built in honor of St. Philomena. It was constructed in 1936 using a Neo Gothic style and its architecture was inspired by the Cologne Cathedral in Germany. It is a very impressive structure indeed.

Our last stop was Mysore palace also known as the Amba Vilas Palace. It is the official residence and seat of the Wodeyars — the Maharajas of Mysore.  The palace houses two durbar halls and incorporates a mesmerizing and gigantic array of courtyards, gardens, and buildings. The palace is in the central region of inner Mysore, facing the Chamundi Hills eastward. Mysore Palace is now one of the most famous tourist attractions in India, after the Taj Mahal, and has more than 3 million visitors annually.

--
Syed Ali Mujtaba is a journalist based in Chennai. He can be contacted at syedalimujtaba@yahoo.com –

Wednesday, September 24, 2014

The Unending story of Hyderabad State

The Unending story of Hyderabad State
Syed Ali Mujtaba

The annexation of the Princely state of Hyderabad which took place amidst high drama on 17th September 1948 continues to hog limelight even today. Every year the communal forces in Hyderabad rake up this issue of the ‘Liberation Day’ to tease the Muslim community which is now in its third generation.

Normally, this day is celebrated quietly in party headquarters but this time it was planned at differently. This is because it was the first Telangana Liberation Day after formation of separate Telangana state. The Telegu Rashtriya Samiti (TRS) government which currently rules the new state had rejected the demand of the BJP and the Communist parties to officially celebrate the day.

However, communal forces tried to breach the peace. Tension prevailed at the Golconda Fort as police arrested some activists of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) trying to hoist the national flag to celebrate Telangana Liberation Day on September 17.

The TRS government had denied permission to the BJP to unfurl the national flag at the historic fort. Police prevented BJP workers from entering the fort with the national flag and foiled the attempt to spread communal hatred in the city.

The response from the BJP leader Kishan Reddy, was pithy to this. In an obvious reference to Muslims of Hyderabad, he said that "Telengana Chief Minister should decide whether he wants razakars or people of Telangana."

This statement was rebutted by the Telangana Joint Action Committee (TJAC), which fought for the new  Telangana state  cautioned the people
against those who were trying to distort the Deccan history and make September 17, an issue to spread communal hatred. It called upon people to observe the day as merger to Indian union and not view as victory of people of one faith over those of other and give it a communal color.

It was on September 17, 1948 that then princely state of Hyderabad merged with the Indian Union following the ‘police action’ of the Indian army against Nizam's army and Razakars' (volunteers) came to an end. There are some people in Hyderabad who still recall the terror unleashed by Razakars and thugs like Qasim Rizvi and they say their atrocities were unimaginable.

There is no denying the fact that the razakars or volunteers which sprung up from nowhere in the high noon of princely states in India to defend the Nizam’s rule in Hyderabad was quite a menace. However all the Muslims of Hyderabad were not razakars. There were Muslims in all sorts of organizations that were present at that time. A large of Muslims had nothing to do with the developments of the princely state and they were mere fence sitters.

The statement of BJP leader Kishan Reddy, equating Razakar with Muslims is nothing but hate mongering. What he actually was trying was sowing communal seeds and brainwashing the current generation by making such outlandish statements. It is such kind of people who are poising the minds of current generation that should be dealt with utmost firmness.

The stories what Razakars did and the revenge carried out against them after the fall of Hyderabad are equally chilling. The Sunderlal report is testimony to these fact (http://www.countercurrents.org/mujtaba290913.htm)  At this point of time what purpose does it serve debating whether the atrocities of razakars or that of the Indian army were gorier. How can we grade those crimes, the crime of razakars or the Indian army, who scored over whom?

Does such debate serve any purpose in 2014? We should bury all these tales as dead. History good or bad is behind us and there is no purpose to glorify its wrongs.  In the general good of the society anything that disturbs communal peace should never be encouraged.

The last ruler of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan was a person born to rule a kingdom. He was like any ruler of the 565 Princely states that existed in the country. Many say, Nizam VII was a secular ruler who extended financial aid to many Hindu temples. However, there were forces that were working against him during the end of his rule and he tried to cling on to power as long as colonial ruler presided over his suzerainty.

The seventh Nizam was actually a ceremonial head of the biggest princely state of India who had all responsibilities but no powers. He had long ago lost all his powers of governance to the British residency stationed in Hyderabad.

Some allege that during the last days of his rule, he was financing the Razakars. This is a controversial point and historians agree to disagree on this.

The princely ruler’s entire life should not be judged with his conduct of last days of rule that was engaged to prevent its fall. In a sense of desperation 1945, the ruler even contemplated buying Goa from the Portuguese and wanted Muslim population of Hyderabad to shift to Goa. If this would have happened the act of Muhammad bin Tuglak may have been repeated.

However, the Muslims of Hyderabad whom the BJP leader has calls as razakars refused to entertain any such idea and wanted to live and die in Hyderabad. A similar comment about Indian Muslims is made by Narendra Modi, the current ruler of the country.

A caveat to this development was the incident of 1932, when Muslim league leader Mohmmad Ali Jinnah came to meet him in Hyderabad.  The ruler shouted at the top of his voice and asked ‘Qaid’ to leave at once and not to show his face. Obviously he did not like to entertain any separatist ideas.

It is another story the same ruler in 1947, transferred 10,07,940 pounds sterling and nine shillings in the name of then Pakistan high commissioner in London H.I. Rahimtoola in the National Westminster Bank, which is now called Royal Bank of Scotland.

India raised an objection to the transfer, saying the Nizam was not an independent ruler and prevailed upon the bank to freeze the account. Since then the matter is hanging fire. The money is now estimated to have multiplied to 30 million pounds (Rs.3 billion).

There are many tales to tell about the princely rule of Hyderabad but to wrap this discussion, in the interest of the society, sometimes it’s better to forget past history and build a future where each one can live in perfect harmony with their religion, caste and creed intact.    

 --
Syed Ali Mujtaba is a journalist based in Chennai. He can be contacted at syedalimujtaba@yahoo.com

Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Some Tales from Here and There

Some Tales from Here and There

Syed Ali Mujtaba

In South Asia Contact Group that I moderate a debate has set been set into motion on issues like religious conversion, Muslim- Hindus marriages, opposition to them, branding them as love jihad and the issue of Bangladeshi infiltration in northeast India particularly West Bengal where there is a fear of change in the demographic profile. Reading the views of the learned members, a plethora of thoughts are flowing into my funnel and I like to randomly pen them down for the consideration of my readers.

The first point that’s debated is the historical antecedents of Muslim conversion in India. The Sword theory is being belted out keeping the Boat theory under the wraps. Well Muslims were found in India roughly two decades after the birth of Islam in Arabia. Historical records say that the first mosque came up in Kerala barely 30 years after the death of prophet of Islam. A few decades later a sprinkling of Muslim population was found in the Hindus holy city Beneras. Did they emerge through the sword of Islam? The conversion to Islamic faith in India began with the arrival of boats from Arabia to the Malabar Coast. All this was some five centuries before the Muslim’s conquest of Hindustan.

If at all the Sword theory comes into play its only in the 12th century AD, precisely after 1162 AD when Slauddin Gohri opened the flood gates of India to usher in the Muslim rule in India. There is no recorded history that the marching Muslim armies played any role in conversion of the local people to Islamic faith using the strong arm tactics of sword of Islam.

Historical recorded of the chroniclers of that time say that along with the Muslim armies a stream of Muslim Sufi saints came to India on a mission to provide solace to the teeming millions. Their graves dot the entire length and breadth of the country and testify their geographical spread. It’s a matter of fact that the number of graves of Muslim Sufi saints far outnumber of the graves of the Muslim rulers in India.

The Muslim Sufi saints by the conduct of their daily life and various practices won the hearts of the Indian population. The people of the country held them in much higher reverence then the rulers of the day. Their worldly abode was frequented by the rulers of the day who made a beeline to get their wishes fulfilled. The stories of conversion to Islamic faith in India are attributed to such noble souls who lived into the people’s hearts and they came to them voluntarily to be taken under their wings. The change of faith came from the call of the consciousness and not from the sword of Islam at least that’s what the chroniclers have recorded history.

The testimony to this fact is while the graves of the Muslim ruler’s are just monumental symbols in India, the grave of Sufi saints are living temples in the country. The resting place of the Muslim Sufi saints is visited more by the Hindus then Muslims is an undeniable fact is the country.

In the conversation debate hidden is the human bondage theory. The number of people who been librated from bondage of human tyranny by the Islamic faith reflects upon the Muslim population in India, the second largest in the world. This facet of the human story is hidden from the multitude because it paints Hindu faith in grey color.

In order to counter the bondage theory a canard of sword theory is spread by some misguided elements to generate hatred against the Muslims and to unite the Hindu folks in the country. This diabolic propaganda has seeped into the minds of the countrymen many Hindu brethren remain ignorant about this historical truth.

Another debate in the South Asia Contact Group is the concern towards inter-religious marriage taking place in contemporary India. There are two facets to this phenomenon. One is religious, other is temporal. While religion is clear in its definition, the temporal part is case specific. Many Muslims have apathy towards marrying Hindus because their religion forbids them to do so. This fact that religion cannot be tempered with, and in such cases it is the individuals who have to adjust to the temporal reality. The opposition of Hindu- Muslim families are valid in religious sense but they have to willingly or unwilling accept the facts as facts. There are instances where such unions are forcibly separated and in some cases results in honor killings are something that has to be looked upon by the society and peaceful coexistence has to be practiced.

In this context two cases needs mention, one a Hindu girl marrying a Muslim boy and other the reverse case. The Hindu girl who is happily married to a Muslim boy, it’s easy for her to adjust in the Muslim household, while its extremely difficult for the Muslim girl to adjust in Hindu household due to elaborate rituals being practiced. The Muslim girl has to leave husband’s house because she was not able to adjust with the religious practices in that household. She had to ask her husband to choose between her and his family, and she walked out when her husband preferred his family.

The case of Rizwanur Rehman is a classic example on such developments in the country. In the TV programme Styamev Jeatye, Rizwan’s mother gave a graphic account of his son’s death. Many hearts moved hearing her tale where a Hindu family opposed the marriage of their daughter to a Muslim boy and even went to the extent to take his life. Well this one account of inter-religious marriages, there are many successful marriages happing with their lives moving at their own pace.

Added to it is the love Jihad theory, another canard that is being spread in the country to perpetrate Hindu-Muslim divide. Those who are unable to come to terms with the social reality are spreading such story of love jihad. This diabolic propaganda has again seeped into the minds of many Hindu brethren. They are unable to adjust with the social change and cannot accept modernization of the tradition taking place in the country.

Adding on to the communal overtones is the issue of Bangladeshi infiltration in northeastern part of India. Bangladeshis entering into Assam, west Bengal Tripura is a national concern. The problem has historical, geographical, social, political and economical in nature but there is no religious angle to it. However, the propaganda that Bangladeshis Muslim infiltrators are going to change the demographic profile of India is being done to polarize the Indian society on religious lines. This is the funniest of all anti Muslim propaganda spread in the country. What Indian Muslims has to do If Bangladeshi Muslims coming to India? Why Indian Muslims are put under pressure for the acts of foreign nationals? The BJP-RSS government that is currently saddled in power has to address this national concern and put the controversy to rest once and for all.

It’s an irony of sorts that in 1905 when the Partition of Bengal took place, the Hindu Bengalis tooth and nail opposed that Partition evoking nationalist feelings. This was because they wanted to lord over the Muslim peasantries who served as their surfs. With the twist of history, when Bengal again got partitioned on communal lines, the same folks do not want their linguistic halves entering their side of the border. Now they are dubbed as Muslim infiltrators who are coming to change their demography.

Even though there is no official statistics on changing demography, this diabolic propaganda has seeped into the minds of many Hindu brethren. They view it in communal terms.

One wonders if East and West Bengal again gets united by any chance, how this theory of Bangladeshi infiltrators changing the demographic profile of United Bengal will unfold itself. The footnote to this could be suggestive reading on the Hindu peasantry’s conversion to Islamic faith in East Bengal. This will negate the sword theory and establish the supremacy of the liberation of human bondage up the ladder.

--

Syed Ali Mujtaba is a journalist based in Chennai. He can be contacted at syedalimujtaba@yahoo.com

Friday, July 25, 2014

Popular Culture and Indian Cartoon Characters
Syed Ali Mujtaba

Popular culture is something that cannot be ignored. I remember reading chanda mama, bikram vaital, chacha chuddary, akbar birbal etc, the print cartoon characters available at that time. There was no TV medium at that time so print only occupied the cartoon space.
Now several cartoon characters are available on the television and today’s kids are glued to the TV sets watching their favorite programme. One such programme is chota bheem on Pogo channel. The programme is a huge success among the children in the entire country.


I could foresee the popularity of the cartoon characters when a mall in Chennai organized an exhibition of chota bheen and his friends over the weekend. A crowed of over 500 kids had assembled to have a glimpse of their icons.

The show was a grand success in terms of sheer numbers that had turned for meeting and greeting chota bheem and its gang. The kids were crazy watching their favorite characters dressed up like orginal avatars. The kids never had thought they could see their icons other than their television screens. It was a celebration of these cartoon character. The kids enjoyed moments of applause, cheers and thrill with sheer madness.  There was Chota Bheem, Chutki and Jaggu in the stage.

The event was huge commercial success as only those who have made a purchase of over Rs 3000 rupees at the mall could only enter the enclosed arena to have have a photo session of their kids with the dressed up cartoon characters on the stage.

The makeshift shop selling memorabilia of chota bheem and others was doing brisk business. There were accessories like, towels, bed sheets and whole lot of other things that depicted the cartoon characters. The excitement among the tiny tots towards the chota beem artifacts was unbelievable.

This event was a true representation of popular culture. All of the kids belonged to different background but they all had one thing in common, the love for chota bheem.
While Micky Mouse, Donald Duck, Tom and Jerry, Noddy may be the international brand of cartoons, around which global kids rally around, to watch a local brand of chota bheem competing with them was something amazing.  

In the TRP ratings, the programme ‘chota bheem’ is giving a run for money to many TV serials in the country.  Some trade analyst of the television programmes has acknowledged the success of chota bheem. This suggests that in the age of globalization, national products too have the wherewithal to hold its ground.


It was amazing to watch such a popular culture unfolding itself. This popular culture needs a more thoughtful study by trained sociologists….      

Sunday, June 22, 2014

Research Paper: - A Comparative Analysis of Western and Indian Theories of Communication-

Research Paper: - A Comparative Analysis  of Western and Indian Theories of Communication -

SYED ALI MUJTABA PhD*

Introduction 

Communication as such has traveled a long journey, from Johannes Gutenberg (1468), who invented the first printing press, to Steve Jobs (2011), who pioneered personal computers and smartphones.
The origin of the modern communication studies can be traced to the invention of telephone, with sender, message, channel receiver, for the first time came into existence. Since then the uses and understanding of communication has come a long way. In the current context, communication is labeled as cyber age, information age, networking age, 3G, 4G age etc.

It was the studies of propaganda warfare during World War II, that the power of communication strategies first gained importance. Since then governments have started taking keen interest in the communication studies. Besides, business and industry too acknowledged its value and started providing support to communication studies for the development of their advertising, marketing strategies.
The rapid growth of the mass media has also influenced the communication studies. In fact, print media, broadcast media i.e. radio and television, and the Internet, all has contributed towards the field  of communication studies.

In India the discipline of communication is being developed since independence with the government support for the need of propagating family planning, social development, and national integration messages. In India, the application of communication is mostly in the areas of advertising and mass communication.
In terms of theoretical understanding, Indian communication study is still grounded in the ancient literature, fine arts, custom and traditions and the freedom struggle discourses.

Indian communication study is heavily dependent on the western model of communication theories, and as such is in an infant stage of development. There is a huge scope for theoretician to research on communication studies and come up with Indian communication theories to set new bench mark in the field of communication studies.  It is widely believed that Indian theories of communication can help strengthen the foundations of building the modern India.

This paper; “A comparative analysis of Western and Indian Theories of Communication” intends to draw a summary of arguments to further develop the Indian theories of communication.

What is Communication? 

The English word communication is derived from the Latin noun communis, and the Latin verb communicare means to make common. In an attempt to define the term communication the ideas that crop up are; interaction, interchange, transaction, dialogue, sharing, communion and commonness. (1)
Communication in its simplest sense is a human relationship involving two or more persons who come together to share, to dialogue, and to commune, or just be together. Communication thus is an act of social and cultural togetherness. (2)

A common language is prerequisite for Communication but that necessarily do not bring people together. Other factors like shared culture and a common interest which brings about a sense of communality are important for communication. (3)

Communication therefore is not isolated entities sending discrete messages back and forth, but encompasses a multitude of experiences, action and events, as well as a whole variety of happenings. (4)

The study of communication, in its multitudinous forms, whether it’s human or technological, has now taken the characteristics of an inter-disciplinary and multi disciplinary subject and therefore needs a close scrutiny. (5)

Western Theories of Communication 

According to western communication theory, the primary goal of communication is to influence through persuasion. Greek philosopher Aristotle's ‘Rhetoric,’ dating 4th century BC, is a treatise on the art of persuasion and perhaps the first book that deals with the subject of communication.  According to ‘Rhetoric,’ communication is made up of three elements- the speaker- the speech and the listener. The aim of the communication is the search of all possible means of persuasion.

Harrold D Lasswell- This American political scientist stated that the convenient way to describe the act of communication is to answer the following question. Who – communicator – Says what- message- in which channel – medium – to whom- receiver- with what effect?

The Lasswell model of communication process is mechanistic and effects approach to communication. It sees communication performing three functions; 1- Surveillance of the environment, 2- co relationship of components of society, 3- cultural transmission between generations. So it is essential to understand the notions of transfer of information for its intended effects. (6)

Berelson and Steiner: They see communication as an act or process of transformation of information ideas, emotions, skills etc by the use of symbols, words, pictures figures, graphs etc. (7)
Charles Osgood’s definition of communication is; we communicate whenever one, (the system), (the source) influences another, (the destination) by manipulation of alternative signals which can be transferred over the channel connecting them. (8)

Wilbur Schramm defined communication as sharing of information, ideas or attitudes. He endorsed the idea that communication always requires the three elements- source, message, and destination.  He stressed on encoding and decoding and explained microphone for encoder and earphone for decoder. Wilbur Schramm suggests that communication is circular in nature, where both sender and receiver are equal partners in the exchange of ideas. (9)

Shannon and Weaver model developed in 1949 conceive communication as a system that comprises of five essential parts, plus Noise. 1- Information source 2 – a transmitter 3- a channel – 4- the receiver 5 destination. (10)

David Berlo in 1960 created the SMCR Model of Communication. The Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of communication separated the model into clear parts. Berlo, saw communication as a process and the events and relationship of this process as dynamic on going, ever changing and continuous. He termed it as the bucket theory of communication. In this, the ideas are dumped from a source into a bucket and the reciver picks them up through such mediums. According to him buckets are newspaper, radio, television, Internet etc.  (11)  

Semiotic Models of Communication 

In recent years there is shift witnessed in the western communication theories. It has move to those with communication relationship and the communication experience and is called Semiotic Models of Communication.

Semiotic models look at communication as social interaction through messages. The focus of attention in these models language (both verbal and non verbal) as a sign system, how meaning is generated and understood, it is central to this approach.

The crucial questions the semiotic model try to address is; what is sign? What is the meaning of sign? What is the relationship between, signs, users and external reality?

The users are seen as active, as creator of meaning, as one who makes his or her own meaning. Meaning is thus not so much in the words, gestures or symbols, (the text) but in cultural interpretation of the participants (the readers) of the communication experience. (12)

Indian Theories of Communication 

Indian communication theories are rooted in Indian religious literature, Indian philosophy and fine arts.  It was first used in the 10th century commentary called “Natyashastra” by Bharata, the principle source of information for the Indian theory of communication.

The closet word to communication in Indian classical literature is “Sadhranikaran.”  This Sanskrit term comes closet to the sense of common or commonness usually associated with communication.

The most important assumption in the process of “Sadhranikaran” is, it can only be understood by the ‘Sahridayas’, literally means one heart, or those who has the capacity to receive the message.

Communication according to “Sadhranikaran” is a relationship based on common and mutual understanding and feeling for Sahridaya. This innate ability is acquired through culture, adaptation and learning. (13)

The primary focus in the Indian tradition of communication is an inward search for meaning, a process leading to self awareness, then to freedom and finally to truth. Thus it transcends language and meaning and is interpretation or reception oriented. The intra-personal communication is of greater importance then inter-personal communication.

The goal of “Sadhranikaran” is not persuasion but the very enjoyment of disseminating and receiving the message. Here the source is perceived as having the higher status, and the relationship is hierarchical of domination and subordination. The source is held in high esteem by the receiver of the information, a relationship that is idealized and romanticized. (14)

Some argue that the asymmetrical aspect of “Sadhranikaran” helped the blooming of Indian civilization in earlier times through efficient communication. However, other argues that it has resulted in highly rigid and hierarchal closed social structure. The debate continues.

Apart from literature, Indian communication theories are also grounded in fine art traditions. It is composed of permanent mood called “bhava” and illustrated through the dance form. The essence of communication lay in achieving commonness and oneness as stressed in Bharata’s Natyashastra. (15)

These moods are capable of arousing corresponding sate of feelings. There are nine permanent moods that give rise to nine forms of aesthetic pleasure. For example; ‘harsha’ joy, ‘hasya’ laughter, ‘irsha,’ jealousy, ‘Karuna’, compassion etc.

The entire range of human emotions is compressed in this categorization.  The nine permanent moods are accompanied by any feelings and are secondary moods that are common to several dominant moods. It serves the purpose of completely manifesting the permanent mood and make the communication process complete. (16)

Indian communication theories are also identified through mass communication. It is synonymous with the simplification and illustration. Saints and Sufi's propagated their message of peace and harmony through simplification and illustration of their messages.

During the freedom struggle, India's political leaders such as Gandhji used the similar communication methods for mass communication. Use of social religious symbols was made to connect with the masses. The utter simplicity of such messages charged the masses and they came out in hordes because of the effectiveness of the communication that made great impact on them. Such practice continues even today and can be found in the modern discourse of communication being made through mass media.

Communication in India’s Freedom Struggle  

Communication might appear to be a well-studied subject, but its role in India’s Freedom Struggle remains unexplored. There are verbal and non verbal communication methods used by the freedom fighters during the freedom struggle, and it in this aspect communication as a subject is rich in content.

The person who has a towering influence over India’s freedom struggle is undoubtedly M.K Gandhi, who earned the title of Mahatma only because of his able communication skills.  It’s is being observed Gandhiji stands out among the pack of freedom fighters only due to various strategies he adopted to communicate with the masses. (17)

So the idiom of communication adopted by Gandhiji needs a careful study. It is said that Gandiji left an impact on the people he met and spoke was simply electrifying. He attracted crowd who come to hear him and some merely watch his presence amongst them. All those who came for him were not band of educated people but ordinary folks who were magnetized by his persona. This affirms the theory that Gandhiji was as a communicator par excellence. (18)

There are two facets of Gandhiji’s personality. More than the leader of a freedom movement; he was a social reformer. In course of communication he crossed over the two roles with great felicity. In both the roles he assigned the greatest value to asceticism and spiritualism that had great psychological and socio-cultural appeal on the masses. (19)

It is often observed that Gandhiji had developed an idiom with which the common man could identify easily. He made use of the idioms drawn from Indian’s belief system and his strong religious orientation. (20)
As a social reformer he asked the masses to wear khadi, eschew alcohol, not to practice untouchability etc. His term Harijan referred to one belonging to an oppressed caste.

On political side, he talked about non-violence, togetherness, and harmony. He used the idiom Raam Raajya to denote an ideal state. Swaraj meant self rule. Ahimsa meant non-violence, Satyaagraha denoted non-cooperation with the oppressor and Sarvodaya, meant “rise of all”.  (21)

Gandhiji’s verbal message was simple. There was no ambiguity in his language, no hedging behind words. He spoke directly what he thought about some issues. In fact, it is this directness that made his communication forceful.

Even when Gandhi interacted with educated and the sophisticated class, he used simple, direct language and was clear in his mode of communication. He eschewed rhetoric and harshness and his words were polite that reflected the sincerity and genuineness of purpose. The simplicity of his language, the balanced structure of his words made his communication very effective. (22)

If we apply Gandhijis methods of communication on the western model of communication, the credibility of the source (of the message) is very high; the message is reduced to a great extent to the source. In case of Gandhiji, the source “communicates” by mere presence, rather than by language or any other communicative mode. It is more semiotic in western sense. (23)

Communication theorists in their attempt to build communication models, often neglect the interest value of what is being communicated. The Indian model of communication as espoused by Gandhiji, suggests, it’s the content element that have a more abiding impact on the people than some things else.

The communication theorists should consider that the successful of communication can only be possible through the content of the message being communicated and not by some mechanical indicators.

Comparison 

Western theories of communication have been largely linear, a mechanical notion of communication as transmission of information from active source to passive receivers. The individual based model assumes that communication is an act, a static phenomenon, privileging the source and not a dynamic process, involving all elements of social relationship. (24)

Indian communication theories are more grounded in Hindu philosophical perception that is governed by the law of Dharma. The universal law of Dharma regulates human existence and governs relations of individual. (25)

The western theories of communication are confined to the study of surface structures with features such as verbal language, body language, non verbal gestures facial expression etc. (26)

Where as it is the deep structure features that make a critical difference to the understanding of Indian theories of communication. The deep structure is shaped by the cultural and metaphysical assumptions.  (27)

Western model of communication theories are reflective of western thought and culture. The distinctive mark of this philosophy is categorization, classification liner sequencing and rational logic. (28)

Indian model of communication on the other hand is characteristically complex and plural. It is holistic and intuitive, and believes that reality is one. Individualism and manipulation have no place in Indian communication tradition that is marked by asceticism and spiritualism.  (29)

The New Visual World 

Communication studies today are dominated by a new phenomenon called the new visual world. It has added another dimension to the conventional theories of communication studies.  (30)

The new visual world actually shaped up when the internet opened the gates of communication highway and e-mails and voice-mails dominated the cyber space. Today this communication over taken by the images beamed through webcams whose application is found in an array of activities. Further, the technologies like 3G and 4G has enhanced the speed of such communication methods. (31)

In the new visual world communication is happening face-to-face through touch screens and the keyboards, bridging the time and space. This is definitely a sign of change that has come to stay as a new mode of communication strategy.

The new visual world has thrown open a window of opportunities but it’s filled with challenges. It requires the basic skills of visual communication to adept to the art of effective communication. What are these skills is the new theme of communication studies. (32)

The communication in new visual world is catapulting a global society, bringing the world closer to each other. In such case, the space for nationalism is shrinking and the mantra ‘globalization’ is surging ahead. This is another theme for exploration in the field of communication studies. (33)

All this explains that communication studies are providing vistas of knowledge waiting to be explored. There is vast scope for researchers to make forays in this field of knowledge.

Conclusion 

 In the comparative study between western and Indian theories of communication, it is found that Indian communication theories is dominated by the content and emotions, where as the western communication theories are more mechanical in nature with some consideration to semiotics. It is this aspect of communication that separates the two theories.

However, in the new age of communication that is increasingly driven by information technology the comparison between Western and India Communication theories has become redundant.  Now the communication theorists have to give priority to the IT aspect of communication and the phenomenon called the new visual world.

 It is assumed that based on such experiences new theories of communication are going to be developed and that will be universal in nature. The future is going to be dominated by this aspect of communication studies.

References 

1- Fiske, John (1990). Introduction to Communication Studies. Routledge, London.
2- Denis Mac quail- Towards a Sociology of Communication – London, collier Macmillan 1975
3- Ibid
4- Ashley Montague and Floyd Maston, “The Human Connection” New York, McGraw Hill, 1979 – Also see James A Cary - Communication as Culture
5- David Crowley and David Mitchell (Eds) Communication Today, Cambridge; Polity Press 1994
5 - Robert A White – The significance of recent developments in the field of mass communication, paper presented at the 1985 meeting of the foundation for mass communication research in the Netherlands, March 1985
6- - Ibid
7- - Ibid
8- 6-Ibid
9- Wilbur Schramm – Mass Media and National Development, Stanford University Press, 1964
10- Robert A White – The significance of recent developments in the field of mass communication, paper presented at the 1985 meeting of the foundation for mass communication research in the Netherlands, March 1985
11- Ibid
12- The semiotic approaches to communication are based on the works of C.S Pierce, who established the American tradition of semiotics, C.K Ogden and I.A Richards of Britain, and Ferinand de Saussure, the Swiss linguist.
13- I.P Tewari - Sadharanikaran  Indian Communication Theory, India Foreign Review, June 1980
14- I.P Tewari -Towards an Indian Communication  Theory, Communicator, New Delhi  March 1992, pp 35-38
15- JS Yadav, - Trends in Communication Research- Paper presented at the national seminar on communication research: Trends and Priorities, New Delhi, Indian institute of Mass Communication research 1984
16- Ibid
17- Rudolph, S.H. and L.I. Rudolph. Gandhi. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
18- Chakravarty, Nikhil (1995). “Mahatma Gandhi: The Great Communicator”, Gandhi
19- MacArthur, Brian (1996). The Penguin Book of Historic Speeches. Penguin Books, London.
20- Mukherjee, Rudrangshu (ed.)(1993). The Penguin Gandhi Reader. Penguin Books India
21- Publication Division, Government of India (1994).All Are Equal in the Eyes of God (Selections from Mahatma Gandhi’s Writings). Publications Division, New Delhi. (Second Reprint) (First Published: 1964).
22- Gandhi, Rajmohan (1995). The Good Boatman. Viking, Penguin books India, New Delhi.
23- Parekh, Bhikhu (2001). Gandhi: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, New York.
24- Achal  Mehra-  Western  Communication theory An Asian Critique – paper presented at the IAMCR
25- T.B Saral - Hindu Philosophy of Communication pp  47-58
26- Achal  Mehra-  Western  Communication theory An Asian Critique – paper presented at the IAMCR
27- T.B Saral - Hindu Philosophy of Communication  pp  47-58
28- Achal  Mehra-  Western  Communication theory An Asian Critique – paper presented at the IAMCR
29- T.B Saral - Hindu Philosophy of Communication pp  47-58
30- Rothwell, J. Dan (2010). In the company of others: an introduction to communication (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533630-6.
31- Kenneth Louis Smith (2005). Handbook of visual communication: theory, methods, and media. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-8058-4178-7
32-
33- Jamieson, G. H. Visual Communication: More Than Meets the Eye. Bristol: Intellect Books, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84150-141-3. p.16.

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About the Author - 

Dr Syed Ali Mujtaba is a media trainer, journalist, author and documentary film maker. He is currently working as Principal National College of Design, Chennai. He has worked for over fifteen years in several media organizations and taught media courses as full time faculty for more than eight years. He holds masters degrees in History and Journalism and Mass Communication. He has taken M.Phil and PhD degree from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He has qualified National Education Test (NET). He was in UK on Indian government’s grant to pursue doctoral research. He has authored two books and contributed a chapter each to four edited volumes.He is prolific writer and political commentator. His writing appears in various newspapers and websites. His research papers have appeared in several reputed journals in India and abroad. He has made two documentary films; “Beyond Empires,” and “Making a Difference.” He is a Jefferson Fellow at the East West Center Hawaii. Under this media programme he visited several cities in the US, South Korea, Vietnam and Singapore. He has been twice to Thailand to present papers at the Media conferences. He also had been to present a paper at the Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu Nepal. He was Chennai Correspondent of CVC Radio Australia. He is a member of International Federation of Environmental Journalist Association (IFEJA). He is also member of Association of British Scholars and East West Center Hawaii, Chennai Chapters. He is the founder and moderator of South Asia Contact Group.  He was in the Aligarh Muslim University’s Football team, from where he has taken his bachelors and masters degree.





Thursday, June 5, 2014

India a moving anarchy stands vindicated

India a moving anarchy stands vindicated 
Syed Ali Mujtaba

The recent developments in the country are quite appalling. There are two powerful events that has shaken the nation. One is the heinous crime of rape and murder in UP and other the gruesome killing of an innocent Muslim youth in Pune. Both the events vindicates the idea that India is a moving anarchy.

On 27 May two girls aged 12 and 14 from an oppressed caste family of Katra Sadatganj in Badaun district of UP were sexually assaulted and killed when out to answer the call of the nature. The rapists, belonging to the local dominant caste, hung their bodies from a tree in a public display of their power.

In the Badaun rape and murder case the accused includes two police men. The police station in charge refused to file an FIR when informed about the missing girls by the father of one of them, a casual wage-labourer. The accused belong to the core caste base of the ruling party in UP.This reported case of rape and murder in UP has shamed the nation.

There are reports of rape from Rajasthan coming as well. Earlier in March four minor Dalit girls were raped in Bhagana village of Haryana. It seems that the season of rape has begun once again in the country.

Even though the United Nations has taken cognizance of the developments in India and has issued statement against this alarming trend, the country seems to have accepted it as a moving anarchy syndrome.
Even media in the country is quite mellowed in reporting these events. If we compare the reportage of December 2012 rape incident in New Delhi, there is little anger in media regarding such heinous crime. Even the response of the Civil Society to these cases is very meek. It seems every one has accepted it as a fait accompli.

The other trend that is growing momentum is the perpetration of hate crime in the country. On 2 June in Pune, twenty-eight year old Mohsin Shaikh, an information technology professional was beaten to death by a Hindu mob for alleged morphing of pictures of some Maratha icons. The mob belonged to a group of men of an outfit called Hindu Rashtra Sena.

The killers even celebrated their cruelty in messages declaring that the ‘the first wicket is down’.  This is the most sordid saga of hate crime.

In Pune the political context of the murder cannot be discounted. The state assembly elections in Maharashtra are a few months away, and the hyper activity of extremist groups is an attempt to polarize voters on religious grounds. Hatred of religious minorities has always been the ideological core of the BJP’s politics.

It is not long ago that the media reported the lynching of Nido Tania, a northeast student in New Delhi. The response was mute whimper in the media about this racial crime, but soon the voices of sanity got drowned in the crescendo of moving anarchy.

The stoke silence of Prime Minister Narender Modi on string of rape incidents in the country and on the killing of Pune’s technique’s killing is puzzling. At least Manmohan Singh raised concern over the murder of northeast boy Nido Taniam’s murder. The new PM’s silence is giving impression that he is sympathizing with the killers. It’s the same impression he gave to the post Godhara killings of the Muslims in Gujarat.

If this is the case is there any moral consciousness left in the country, or every one likes to brush these events under the carpet saying, India is a moving anarchy and such things are part and parcel of the country. India has never been close to moving anarchy that as it is now. Certainly, the adage stands vindicated in its letters and spirits.

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Syed Ali Mujtaba is a journalist based in Chennai. He can be contacted at syedalimujtaba@yahoo.com